I came across the image above in the Slack channel of the University of Hertfordshire Centre for Astrophysics Research. It summarises some of the fundamental knowledge in computer science that was assumed necessary at some point in time: Binar, CPU execution and algorithms.
They refer to 7 algorithms, but actually rather than actual algorithms they are classes:
- Dynamic Programming
- Binary Exponentiation
- String Matching and Parsing
- Primality Testing